by Paul J. Carnegie
The proposal of constitutional reforms and the establishment of effective constitutional change are two distinct matters. Translating proposals into accepted practice is an invariably fraught process. The following paper examines the constitutional reforms that took place in Indonesia from 1999-2002. It asks how we go about understanding and interpreting the outcomes of that process. By combining a constitutional history with a consideration of the legacies of Suharto's authoritarian rule, the paper further situates previous qualitative assessments of the post-1999 constitutional reforms. Drawing on the work of the likes of Asshidique, Horowitz, Indrayana and Mietzner, the paper argues that, despite a less than ideal process, Indonesia's gradualist approach facilitated acceptance and paved the way for a meaningful level of constitutionalism from a troubled past.
by Ketevan Mumladze
Since the declaration of Soviet Perestroika and Glasnost (Перестройка и Гласность) in the second half of the 1980s, this Soviet ideological product has been continuously studied in both the West and the post-Soviet space. On an international level, Glasnost (openness), a key constituent of Perestroika, is treated as the most vivid example of the media model of change and development. Without studying the Georgian periodicals from this point in history, meaning the second half of the 1980s, it is impossible to analyze the incremental development of the media in the era of independence, and to paint a picture drawing on historical context, to explain interdependence and cause and effect relationships, and to systematize empiric knowledge. This paper seeks to examine and systemize growing expectation-related sentiments as a result of declared Glasnost (openness), transformation of editorial policy, and qualitatively modified communication in the periodicals from the second half of the 1980s. The paper offers a review of a particular section from a vast study/thesis, Refraction of the Concept of Perestroika and Glasnost in the Georgian Print Media, which refers to the significance of Perestroika and Glasnost for a specific artistic social strata, those engaged in the areas of literature and cinema, also reflecting their changing expectations and the confirmed results of Perestroika and Glasnost as a means for enhanced opportunities.
The Economics of Regulatory Impact in Evolving Industries:Case of Georgian Postal and Courier Service Market
by Natia Kutivadze
An economic impact analysis of legal barriers imposed by the Georgian Government on an evolving postal and courier service market and statutory monopoly's economic rationale are dealt with in this article while assessing its shortcomings and reviewing commitments incurred by Georgia with the EU-Georgia Association Agreement (specifically, with the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area). Findings of the paper demonstrate that the legal barriers restricted free and fair competition in the postal and courier service market by fostering a statutory monopolist, a state-run Ltd Georgian Post, which enjoyed preferential treatment through establishing statutory but discriminatory barriers against its competitors. The precedent of curbing free and fair competition is bound to impede economic growth as the government is not in the position to uphold openness and transparency of the market, enforce competition policy and respect the spirit of liberalizing access to trade in the postal and currier services of Georgia.